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  1. Matilde Yáñez, Luc\'ıa Galán, Jorge Mat\'ıas-Guiu, Alvaro Vela, Antonio Guerrero and Antonio G Garc\'ıa.
    CSF from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients produces glutamate independent death of rat motor brain cortical neurons: protection by resveratrol but not riluzole.. Brain research 1423:77–86, 2011.
    Abstract The neurotoxic effects of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients suffering amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), have been reported by various authors. However, variable results have been communicated and the mechanism of such neurotoxicity has been attributed to excess glutamate concentrations in ALS/CSF. We have studied here the properties of 14 CSFs from control patients and 29 CSFs from patients of ALS. We found that while ALS/CSF impairs the viability of rat brain cortical motoneurons maintained in primary cultures, this effect seemed to be exerted through a glutamate-independent mechanism. Resveratrol protected against such neurotoxic effects and antagonized the [Ca(+2)](c) elevation produced by ALS/CSF. However, riluzole did not afford protection and antagonized the resveratrol-elicited neuroprotective effects. We conclude that ALS/CSF elicited neurotoxicity on in vitro cultures of rat brain cortical motor neurons may become a sound microassay to test available novel multitargeted neuroprotective compounds with potential therapeutic application in ALS patients.
    URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{Yanez2011,
    	abstract = "The neurotoxic effects of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients suffering amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), have been reported by various authors. However, variable results have been communicated and the mechanism of such neurotoxicity has been attributed to excess glutamate concentrations in ALS/CSF. We have studied here the properties of 14 CSFs from control patients and 29 CSFs from patients of ALS. We found that while ALS/CSF impairs the viability of rat brain cortical motoneurons maintained in primary cultures, this effect seemed to be exerted through a glutamate-independent mechanism. Resveratrol protected against such neurotoxic effects and antagonized the [Ca(+2)](c) elevation produced by ALS/CSF. However, riluzole did not afford protection and antagonized the resveratrol-elicited neuroprotective effects. We conclude that ALS/CSF elicited neurotoxicity on in vitro cultures of rat brain cortical motor neurons may become a sound microassay to test available novel multitargeted neuroprotective compounds with potential therapeutic application in ALS patients.",
    	author = "Y\'{a}\~{n}ez, Matilde and Gal\'{a}n, Luc\'{\i}a and Mat\'{\i}as-Guiu, Jorge and Vela, Alvaro and Guerrero, Antonio and Garc\'{\i}a, Antonio G",
    	doi = "10.1016/j.brainres.2011.09.025",
    	issn = "1872-6240",
    	journal = "Brain research",
    	keywords = "Adult,Aged,Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis,Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: cerebrospinal fluid,Animals,Calcium,Calcium: metabolism,Cell Death,Cell Death: drug effects,Cells, Cultured,Cerebral Cortex,Cerebral Cortex: cytology,Dose-Response Relationship, Drug,Double-Blind Method,Drug Interactions,Embryo, Mammalian,Female,Glutamic Acid,Glutamic Acid: pharmacology,Humans,L-Lactate Dehydrogenase,L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: metabolism,Male,Middle Aged,Motor Neurons,Motor Neurons: drug effects,Neuroprotective Agents,Neuroprotective Agents: pharmacology,Pregnancy,Rats,Riluzole,Riluzole: pharmacology,Stilbenes,Stilbenes: pharmacology",
    	month = "",
    	pages = "77--86",
    	pmid = 21983205,
    	title = "{CSF from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients produces glutamate independent death of rat motor brain cortical neurons: protection by resveratrol but not riluzole.}",
    	url = "http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21983205",
    	volume = 1423,
    	year = 2011
    }
    
  2. Hyung-Sun Youn.
    Anti-inflammatory Effects of Resveratrol, (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate and Curcumin by the Modulation of Toll-like Receptor Signaling Pathways. Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology 39(5), January 2007.
    Abstract Toll-like receptors (TLRs) induce innate immune responses that are essential for host defenses against invading microbial pathogens, thus leading to the activation of adaptive immune responses. In general, TLRs have two major downstream signaling pathways: the MyD88- and TRIF-dependent pathways, which lead to the activation of and IRF3. Numerous studies have demonstrated that certain phytochemicals possessing anti-inflammatory effects inhibit activation induced by pro-inflammatory stimuli, including lipopolysaccharides and . However, the direct molecular targets for such anti-inflammatory phytochemicals have not been fully identified. Identifying the direct targets of phytochemicals within the TLR pathways is important because the activation of TLRs by pro-inflammatory stimuli can induce inflammatory responses that are the key etiological conditions in the development of many chronic inflammatory diseases. In this paper we discuss the molecular targets of resveratrol, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), and curcumin in the TLR signaling pathways. Resveratrol specifically inhibited the TRIF pathway in TLR3 and TLR4 signaling, by targetting TBK1 and RIP1 in the TRIF complex. Furthermore, EGCG suppressed the activation of IRF3 by targetting TBK1 in the TRIF-dependent signaling pathways. In contrast, the molecular target of curcumin within the TLR signaling pathways is the receptor itself, in addition to . Together, certain dietary phytochemicals can modulate TLR-derived signaling and inflammatory target gene expression, and in turn, alter susceptibility to microbial infection and chronic inflammatory diseases. Anti-inflammatory Effects of Resveratrol, (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate and Curcumin by the Modulation of Toll-like Receptor Signaling Pathways - ResearchGate. Available from: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/264185041_Anti-inflammatory_Effects_of_Resveratrol_(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate_and_Curcumin_by_the_Modulation_of_Toll-like_Receptor_Signaling_Pathways [accessed Nov 6, 2015].
    URL BibTeX

    @article{Youn2007,
    	abstract = "Toll-like receptors (TLRs) induce innate immune responses that are essential for host defenses against invading microbial pathogens, thus leading to the activation of adaptive immune responses. In general, TLRs have two major downstream signaling pathways: the MyD88- and TRIF-dependent pathways, which lead to the activation of and IRF3. Numerous studies have demonstrated that certain phytochemicals possessing anti-inflammatory effects inhibit activation induced by pro-inflammatory stimuli, including lipopolysaccharides and . However, the direct molecular targets for such anti-inflammatory phytochemicals have not been fully identified. Identifying the direct targets of phytochemicals within the TLR pathways is important because the activation of TLRs by pro-inflammatory stimuli can induce inflammatory responses that are the key etiological conditions in the development of many chronic inflammatory diseases. In this paper we discuss the molecular targets of resveratrol, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), and curcumin in the TLR signaling pathways. Resveratrol specifically inhibited the TRIF pathway in TLR3 and TLR4 signaling, by targetting TBK1 and RIP1 in the TRIF complex. Furthermore, EGCG suppressed the activation of IRF3 by targetting TBK1 in the TRIF-dependent signaling pathways. In contrast, the molecular target of curcumin within the TLR signaling pathways is the receptor itself, in addition to . Together, certain dietary phytochemicals can modulate TLR-derived signaling and inflammatory target gene expression, and in turn, alter susceptibility to microbial infection and chronic inflammatory diseases. Anti-inflammatory Effects of Resveratrol, (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate and Curcumin by the Modulation of Toll-like Receptor Signaling Pathways - ResearchGate. Available from: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/264185041\_Anti-inflammatory\_Effects\_of\_Resveratrol\_(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate\_and\_Curcumin\_by\_the\_Modulation\_of\_Toll-like\_Receptor\_Signaling\_Pathways [accessed Nov 6, 2015].",
    	author = "Youn, Hyung-Sun",
    	issn = "0367-6293",
    	journal = "Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology",
    	month = "jan",
    	number = 5,
    	title = "{Anti-inflammatory Effects of Resveratrol, (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate and Curcumin by the Modulation of Toll-like Receptor Signaling Pathways}",
    	url = "http://www.researchgate.net/publication/264185041\_Anti-inflammatory\_Effects\_of\_Resveratrol\_(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate\_and\_Curcumin\_by\_the\_Modulation\_of\_Toll-like\_Receptor\_Signaling\_Pathways",
    	volume = 39,
    	year = 2007
    }
    
  3. Dohoon Kim, Minh Dang Nguyen, Matthew M Dobbin, Andre Fischer, Farahnaz Sananbenesi, Joseph T Rodgers, Ivana Delalle, Joseph A Baur, Guangchao Sui, Sean M Armour, Pere Puigserver, David A Sinclair and Li-Huei Tsai.
    SIRT1 deacetylase protects against neurodegeneration in models for Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The EMBO Journal 26(13):3169–3179, 2007.
    Abstract A progressive loss of neurons with age underlies a variety of debilitating neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), yet few effective treatments are currently available. The SIR2 gene promotes longevity in a variety of organisms and may underlie the health benefits of caloric restriction, a diet that delays aging and neurodegeneration in mammals. Here, we report that a human homologue of SIR2, SIRT1, is upregulated in mouse models for AD, ALS and in primary neurons challenged with neurotoxic insults. In cell-based models for AD/tauopathies and ALS, SIRT1 and resveratrol, a SIRT1-activating molecule, both promote neuronal survival. In the inducible p25 transgenic mouse, a model of AD and tauopathies, resveratrol reduced neurodegeneration in the hippocampus, prevented learning impairment, and decreased the acetylation of the known SIRT1 substrates PGC-1alpha and p53. Furthermore, injection of SIRT1 lentivirus in the hippocampus of p25 transgenic mice conferred significant protection against neurodegeneration. Thus, SIRT1 constitutes a unique molecular link between aging and human neurodegenerative disorders and provides a promising avenue for therapeutic intervention.
    URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{Kim2007,
    	abstract = "A progressive loss of neurons with age underlies a variety of debilitating neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), yet few effective treatments are currently available. The SIR2 gene promotes longevity in a variety of organisms and may underlie the health benefits of caloric restriction, a diet that delays aging and neurodegeneration in mammals. Here, we report that a human homologue of SIR2, SIRT1, is upregulated in mouse models for AD, ALS and in primary neurons challenged with neurotoxic insults. In cell-based models for AD/tauopathies and ALS, SIRT1 and resveratrol, a SIRT1-activating molecule, both promote neuronal survival. In the inducible p25 transgenic mouse, a model of AD and tauopathies, resveratrol reduced neurodegeneration in the hippocampus, prevented learning impairment, and decreased the acetylation of the known SIRT1 substrates PGC-1alpha and p53. Furthermore, injection of SIRT1 lentivirus in the hippocampus of p25 transgenic mice conferred significant protection against neurodegeneration. Thus, SIRT1 constitutes a unique molecular link between aging and human neurodegenerative disorders and provides a promising avenue for therapeutic intervention.",
    	author = "Kim, Dohoon and Nguyen, Minh Dang and Dobbin, Matthew M and Fischer, Andre and Sananbenesi, Farahnaz and Rodgers, Joseph T and Delalle, Ivana and Baur, Joseph A and Sui, Guangchao and Armour, Sean M and Puigserver, Pere and Sinclair, David A and Tsai, Li-Huei",
    	doi = "10.1038/sj.emboj.7601758",
    	file = ":C$\backslash$:/Users/riku/AppData/Local/Mendeley Ltd./Mendeley Desktop/Downloaded/Kim et al. - 2007 - SIRT1 deacetylase protects against neurodegeneration in models for Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral scler.pdf:pdf",
    	issn = "0261-4189",
    	journal = "The EMBO Journal",
    	keywords = "Acetylation,Acetylation: drug effects,Alzheimer Disease,Alzheimer Disease: genetics,Alzheimer Disease: metabolism,Alzheimer Disease: pathology,Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis,Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: genetics,Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: metabolism,Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: pathology,Animals,Cells, Cultured,Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5,Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5: metabolism,Disease Models, Animal,Enzyme Activation,Gene Expression Regulation,Humans,Mice,Mice, Transgenic,Mutation,Mutation: genetics,Nerve Degeneration,Nerve Degeneration: genetics,Nerve Degeneration: metabolism,Nerve Degeneration: pathology,Rats,Sirtuin 1,Sirtuins,Sirtuins: genetics,Sirtuins: metabolism,Stilbenes,Stilbenes: pharmacology,Superoxide Dismutase,Superoxide Dismutase: genetics,Superoxide Dismutase: metabolism,Tumor Suppressor Protein p53,Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: metabolism",
    	month = "",
    	number = 13,
    	pages = "3169--3179",
    	pmid = 17581637,
    	title = "{SIRT1 deacetylase protects against neurodegeneration in models for Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis}",
    	url = "http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1914106\&tool=pmcentrez\&rendertype=abstract",
    	volume = 26,
    	year = 2007
    }
    
  4. Eduardo Candelario-Jalil, Antonio Pinheiro C Oliveira, Sybille Gräf, Harsharan S Bhatia, Michael Hüll, Eduardo Muñoz and Bernd L Fiebich.
    Resveratrol potently reduces prostaglandin E2 production and free radical formation in lipopolysaccharide-activated primary rat microglia.. Journal of neuroinflammation 4:25, 2007.
    Abstract BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammatory responses are triggered by diverse ethiologies and can provide either beneficial or harmful results. Microglial cells are the major cell type involved in neuroinflammation, releasing several mediators, which contribute to the neuronal demise in several diseases including cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Attenuation of microglial activation has been shown to confer protection against different types of brain injury. Recent evidence suggests that resveratrol has anti-inflammatory and potent antioxidant properties. It has been also shown that resveratrol is a potent inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 activity. Previous findings have demonstrated that this compound is able to reduce neuronal injury in different models, both in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to examine whether resveratrol is able to reduce prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha (8-iso-PGF2 alpha) production by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated primary rat microglia. METHODS: Primary microglial cell cultures were prepared from cerebral cortices of neonatal rats. Microglial cells were stimulated with 10 ng/ml of LPS in the presence or absence of different concentrations of resveratrol (1-50 microM). After 24 h incubation, culture media were collected to measure the production of PGE2 and 8-iso-PGF2 alpha using enzyme immunoassays. Protein levels of COX-1, COX-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) were studied by Western blotting after 24 h of incubation with LPS. Expression of mPGES-1 at the mRNA level was investigated using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. RESULTS: Our results indicate that resveratrol potently reduced LPS-induced PGE2 synthesis and the formation of 8-iso-PGF2 alpha, a measure of free radical production. Interestingly, resveratrol dose-dependently reduced the expression (mRNA and protein) of mPGES-1, which is a key enzyme responsible for the synthesis of PGE2 by activated microglia, whereas resveratrol did not affect the expression of COX-2. Resveratrol is therefore the first known inhibitor which specifically prevents mPGES-1 expression without affecting COX-2 levels. Another important observation of the present study is that other COX-1 selective inhibitors (SC-560 and Valeroyl Salicylate) potently reduced PGE2 and 8-iso-PGF2 alpha production by LPS-activated microglia. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the naturally occurring polyphenol resveratrol is able to reduce microglial activation, an effect that might help to explain its neuroprotective effects in several in vivo models of brain injury.
    URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{Candelario-Jalil2007,
    	abstract = "BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammatory responses are triggered by diverse ethiologies and can provide either beneficial or harmful results. Microglial cells are the major cell type involved in neuroinflammation, releasing several mediators, which contribute to the neuronal demise in several diseases including cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Attenuation of microglial activation has been shown to confer protection against different types of brain injury. Recent evidence suggests that resveratrol has anti-inflammatory and potent antioxidant properties. It has been also shown that resveratrol is a potent inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 activity. Previous findings have demonstrated that this compound is able to reduce neuronal injury in different models, both in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to examine whether resveratrol is able to reduce prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha (8-iso-PGF2 alpha) production by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated primary rat microglia. METHODS: Primary microglial cell cultures were prepared from cerebral cortices of neonatal rats. Microglial cells were stimulated with 10 ng/ml of LPS in the presence or absence of different concentrations of resveratrol (1-50 microM). After 24 h incubation, culture media were collected to measure the production of PGE2 and 8-iso-PGF2 alpha using enzyme immunoassays. Protein levels of COX-1, COX-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) were studied by Western blotting after 24 h of incubation with LPS. Expression of mPGES-1 at the mRNA level was investigated using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. RESULTS: Our results indicate that resveratrol potently reduced LPS-induced PGE2 synthesis and the formation of 8-iso-PGF2 alpha, a measure of free radical production. Interestingly, resveratrol dose-dependently reduced the expression (mRNA and protein) of mPGES-1, which is a key enzyme responsible for the synthesis of PGE2 by activated microglia, whereas resveratrol did not affect the expression of COX-2. Resveratrol is therefore the first known inhibitor which specifically prevents mPGES-1 expression without affecting COX-2 levels. Another important observation of the present study is that other COX-1 selective inhibitors (SC-560 and Valeroyl Salicylate) potently reduced PGE2 and 8-iso-PGF2 alpha production by LPS-activated microglia. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the naturally occurring polyphenol resveratrol is able to reduce microglial activation, an effect that might help to explain its neuroprotective effects in several in vivo models of brain injury.",
    	author = {Candelario-Jalil, Eduardo and de Oliveira, Antonio C Pinheiro and Gr\"{a}f, Sybille and Bhatia, Harsharan S and H\"{u}ll, Michael and Mu\~{n}oz, Eduardo and Fiebich, Bernd L},
    	doi = "10.1186/1742-2094-4-25",
    	file = ":C$\backslash$:/Users/riku/AppData/Local/Mendeley Ltd./Mendeley Desktop/Downloaded/Candelario-Jalil et al. - 2007 - Resveratrol potently reduces prostaglandin E2 production and free radical formation in lipopolysacchari.pdf:pdf",
    	issn = "1742-2094",
    	journal = "Journal of neuroinflammation",
    	keywords = "Animals,Animals, Newborn,Antioxidants,Antioxidants: pharmacology,Cells, Cultured,Cyclooxygenase 1,Cyclooxygenase 1: drug effects,Cyclooxygenase 1: metabolism,Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors,Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors: pharmacology,Dinoprost,Dinoprost: analogs \& derivatives,Dinoprost: antagonists \& inhibitors,Dinoprost: biosynthesis,Dinoprostone,Dinoprostone: antagonists \& inhibitors,Dinoprostone: biosynthesis,Down-Regulation,Down-Regulation: drug effects,Down-Regulation: physiology,Encephalitis,Encephalitis: drug therapy,Encephalitis: metabolism,Encephalitis: physiopathology,Free Radical Scavengers,Free Radical Scavengers: pharmacology,Free Radicals,Free Radicals: antagonists \& inhibitors,Free Radicals: metabolism,Gliosis,Gliosis: drug therapy,Gliosis: metabolism,Gliosis: physiopathology,Inflammation Mediators,Inflammation Mediators: pharmacology,Lipopolysaccharides,Lipopolysaccharides: pharmacology,Microglia,Microglia: drug effects,Microglia: metabolism,Oxidative Stress,Oxidative Stress: drug effects,Oxidative Stress: physiology,Rats,Stilbenes,Stilbenes: pharmacology",
    	month = "",
    	pages = 25,
    	pmid = 17927823,
    	title = "{Resveratrol potently reduces prostaglandin E2 production and free radical formation in lipopolysaccharide-activated primary rat microglia.}",
    	url = "http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2100038\&tool=pmcentrez\&rendertype=abstract",
    	volume = 4,
    	year = 2007
    }
    
  5. Ozgur Kutuk, Giuseppe Poli and Huveyda Basaga.
    Resveratrol protects against 4-hydroxynonenal-induced apoptosis by blocking JNK and c-JUN/AP-1 signaling.. Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology 90(1):120–32, 2006.
    Abstract In the present study we have studied the effect of resveratrol in signal transduction mechanisms leading to apoptosis in 3T3 fibroblasts when exposed to 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE). In order to gain insight into the mechanisms of apoptotic response by HNE, we followed MAP kinase and caspase activation pathways; HNE induced early activation of JNK and p38 proteins but downregulated the basal activity of ERK (1/2). We were also able to demonstrate HNE-induced release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, caspase-9, and caspase-3 activation. Resveratrol effectively prevented HNE-induced JNK and caspase activation, and hence apoptosis. Activation of AP-1 along with increased c-Jun and phospho-c-Jun levels could be inhibited by pretreatment of cells with resveratrol. Moreover, Nrf2 downregulation by HNE could also be blocked by resveratrol. Overexpression of dominant negative c-Jun and JNK1 in 3T3 fibroblasts prevented HNE-induced apoptosis, which indicates a role for JNK-c-Jun/AP-1 pathway. In light of the JNK-dependent induction of c-Jun/AP-1 activation and the protective role of resveratrol, these data may show a critical potential role for JNK in the cellular response against toxic products of lipid peroxidation. In this respect, resveratrol acting through MAP kinase pathways and specifically on JNK could have a role other than acting as an antioxidant-quenching reactive oxygen intermediate.
    URL, DOI BibTeX

    @article{Kutuk2006,
    	abstract = "In the present study we have studied the effect of resveratrol in signal transduction mechanisms leading to apoptosis in 3T3 fibroblasts when exposed to 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE). In order to gain insight into the mechanisms of apoptotic response by HNE, we followed MAP kinase and caspase activation pathways; HNE induced early activation of JNK and p38 proteins but downregulated the basal activity of ERK (1/2). We were also able to demonstrate HNE-induced release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, caspase-9, and caspase-3 activation. Resveratrol effectively prevented HNE-induced JNK and caspase activation, and hence apoptosis. Activation of AP-1 along with increased c-Jun and phospho-c-Jun levels could be inhibited by pretreatment of cells with resveratrol. Moreover, Nrf2 downregulation by HNE could also be blocked by resveratrol. Overexpression of dominant negative c-Jun and JNK1 in 3T3 fibroblasts prevented HNE-induced apoptosis, which indicates a role for JNK-c-Jun/AP-1 pathway. In light of the JNK-dependent induction of c-Jun/AP-1 activation and the protective role of resveratrol, these data may show a critical potential role for JNK in the cellular response against toxic products of lipid peroxidation. In this respect, resveratrol acting through MAP kinase pathways and specifically on JNK could have a role other than acting as an antioxidant-quenching reactive oxygen intermediate.",
    	author = "Kutuk, Ozgur and Poli, Giuseppe and Basaga, Huveyda",
    	doi = "10.1093/toxsci/kfj055",
    	issn = "1096-6080",
    	journal = "Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology",
    	keywords = "Aldehydes,Aldehydes: toxicity,Animals,Antioxidants,Antioxidants: pharmacology,Apoptosis,Apoptosis: drug effects,Caspase 3,Caspase 9,Caspases,Caspases: biosynthesis,Cytochromes c,Cytochromes c: metabolism,Dose-Response Relationship, Drug,Drug Antagonism,Fibroblasts,Fibroblasts: drug effects,Fibroblasts: metabolism,Fibroblasts: pathology,JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases,JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: metabolism,MAP Kinase Kinase 4,MAP Kinase Kinase 4: metabolism,Mice,Mitochondria,Mitochondria: drug effects,Mitochondria: enzymology,Signal Transduction,Signal Transduction: drug effects,Stilbenes,Stilbenes: pharmacology,Swiss 3T3 Cells,Transcription Factor AP-1,Transcription Factor AP-1: metabolism",
    	month = "",
    	number = 1,
    	pages = "120--32",
    	pmid = 16322078,
    	title = "{Resveratrol protects against 4-hydroxynonenal-induced apoptosis by blocking JNK and c-JUN/AP-1 signaling.}",
    	url = "http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16322078",
    	volume = 90,
    	year = 2006
    }
    
  6. J A Baur, K J Pearson, N L Price, H A Jamieson, C Lerin, A Kalra, V V Prabhu, J S Allard, G Lopez-Lluch and K Lewis.
    Resveratrol improves health and survival of mice on a high-calorie diet. Nature, 2006.
    Abstract Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) extends the lifespan of diverse species including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. In these organisms, lifespan extension is dependent on Sir2, a conserved deacetylase proposed to underlie the beneficial effects of caloric restriction. Here we show that resveratrol shifts the physiology of middle-aged mice on a high-calorie diet towards that of mice on a standard diet and significantly increases their survival. Resveratrol produces changes associated with longer lifespan, including increased insulin sensitivity, reduced insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) levels, increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1$\alpha$ (PGC-1$\alpha$) activity, increased mitochondrial number, and improved motor function. Parametric analysis of gene set enrichment revealed that resveratrol opposed the effects of the high-calorie diet in 144 out of 153 significantly altered pathways. These data show that improving general health in mammals using small molecules is an attainable goal, and point to new approaches for treating obesity-related disorders and diseases of ageing.
    URL BibTeX

    @article{Baur2006,
    	abstract = "Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) extends the lifespan of diverse species including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. In these organisms, lifespan extension is dependent on Sir2, a conserved deacetylase proposed to underlie the beneficial effects of caloric restriction. Here we show that resveratrol shifts the physiology of middle-aged mice on a high-calorie diet towards that of mice on a standard diet and significantly increases their survival. Resveratrol produces changes associated with longer lifespan, including increased insulin sensitivity, reduced insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) levels, increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1$\alpha$ (PGC-1$\alpha$) activity, increased mitochondrial number, and improved motor function. Parametric analysis of gene set enrichment revealed that resveratrol opposed the effects of the high-calorie diet in 144 out of 153 significantly altered pathways. These data show that improving general health in mammals using small molecules is an attainable goal, and point to new approaches for treating obesity-related disorders and diseases of ageing.",
    	author = "Baur, J.A. and Pearson, K.J. and Price, N.L. and Jamieson, H.A. and Lerin, C. and Kalra, A. and Prabhu, V.V. and Allard, J.S. and Lopez-Lluch, G. and Lewis, K.",
    	issn = "0028-0836",
    	journal = "Nature",
    	keywords = "food intake,gene expression regulation,health status,high energy diet,longevity,metabolism,mice,mortality,oral administration,resveratrol",
    	language = "English",
    	title = "{Resveratrol improves health and survival of mice on a high-calorie diet}",
    	url = "http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=US201300758937",
    	year = 2006
    }